The 2002 model year brought yet another exotic, beautiful and incredibly powerful Ducati homologation racebike for the road. The 998R is powered by a road-going version of the second-generation Testastretta engine. This 999cc motor has a larger bore and shorter stroke (104 x 58.8mm/3.9 x 2.3in) than the 998S, which uses the previous Testastretta design. The Testastretta (Italian for 'narrow head') design first appeared on the limited edition 996R race-replica of 2001. It was the first major redesign of the Desmoquattro engine since the 916 of 1994, with the aim of producing a new line of engines for future development. Ducati rearranged the desmodromic valve gear to bring the camshafts closer together and allow a narrower valve angle.